A bit of history today, on probably the darkestyears of the 20th century: AlbertEinsteinplayed a key role in facilitating the transfer of an important number of intellectuals to the safe-haven provided by the Turkishgovernment. Firstly, Einstein helped place some of theseJewishintellectuals in US institutions but eventually realised that Turkey was more ‘open‘ to welcome these scholars and professors.
Turkish “Schindlers” are estimated to have saved the lives of 10,000. Many Jews foundrefuge in Turkey during those”Desperate Hours,” the title of an excellent documentary on this subject. In 1934, some 130 Jewish or partly Jewish (and 70 who were not Jewish) academics were welcomed in Turkey, from Germany and Austria… possibly an increased number from the forty Einstein was humblyseeking to be granted refuge, in the letter above.
With the initiative of MustafaKemalAtaturk, scholars were invited to Turkey. The scholars who came to Turkey were instrumental in effectuating reforms in the Turkish universities. They were the ones who establishedthefoundation of many branches.